Page 103 Account of Agricolas campaigns. Although
there are passing references to roads this is an account
of Agricolas movements in the campaigns.
Page 108 He notes that Dunglass near Dumbarton was
a fording point on the Clyde.
Page 121 Details of Richard of Cirencesters Iters
(a Charles Bertram had forged a document purporting
to be by the mediaeval monk Richard of Cirencester which
gave many details of Roman roads unknown in the 1700s.
It was widely accepted by the antiquarian world, not
least by Chalmers, Roy and the Ordnance Survey, and
caused considerable confusion for many years).
Page 133 Section on Roman Roads giving details of the
1. West Annandale into Clydesdale
Branch into Nithsdale with a minor road over to the
Loudoun Hill road
Glasgow to Paisley
Longtown - Netherby - Castle Oer and beyond
Biggar to Lyne in Peebleshire
2. East Road from the Border to Melrose, Lauder and
Soutra. From Soutra it went west by Currie on the Gore
Water (about 6 miles south of Dalkeith near Borthwick).
Loanhead and Straiton to Bowbridge at the east end of
the Pentlands. From there it went to Cramond and crossed
the Almond to Carriden. He mentions the Military Road
on the Antonine Wall.
Road from Currie to Inveresk
Inveresk to Cramond
Bewclay to Mordington (near Berwick). He refers to suggestions
that a road ran from this one to St Abbs Head
and that there was one along the line of the old Berwick
to Edinburgh road.
3. North of Wall To Stirling, Ardoch and the north
with interesting branches
Mentions ancient roads - Lang Causeway, Picts Road,
Maiden Causeway ( see pps.149, 151, 161) and others.
Summary of the locations of forts found near the roads
Page 184 Mention in passing of roads but see p188 on
causeways in Flanders Moss
Page 239 He notes that the Catrail or Pictsworkditch
that runs from near Galashiels to Liddesdale is mistakenly
called a Roman road on Ainslies map of Selkirkshire.
Page 241 Mention of the Maidenway which runs through
Cumberland to the top of Kershope which separates Cumberland
and Liddesdale. One description says it was 8 yards
broad and paved with stones. It may have been a Roman
Page 254 He notes that a Roman road passed on either
side of Edinburgh (presumably the Inveresk to Cramond
and Currie to Cramond roads).
Page 308 Baronial courts used to be held on mote hills
Page 394 Kenneth III is said to have fortified the
fords of the Forth.
Page 426 Mention of Ecgred, bishop of Lindisfarne (died
845) building the villages of Geddeworde and Geinforde
Page 668 Edward I in 1303 followed the Roman road north
Page 682 The hospital at Soutra possessed the privilege
of sanctuary. A road called the Girthgate led to it
from the south.
Page 737 The Abbot of Kelso held his court at the bridge
Page 786 Reference in 1281 to the bridge of Clyde in
Page 804 In the middle ages the monks did much to improve
the land including making roads on the Roman models
and building bridges
In a footnote he says that they cut ditches on
either side to carry off the water and covered the roadway
with hard materials. The reference he gives for
this is a Melrose charter.
Page 878 He notes that in the first 20 years of the
reign of George III, i.e. between 1760 and 1780, some
450 road acts were passed for different districts.
Page 35 In the introduction to this volume, he gives
an overview of Scotland. In a section on roads he notes
that little was done after the Romans by either the
Picts or the Scots. It was not until the start of the
middle ages (his Scoto-Saxon period) that roads were
made, the notion of the kings highway introduced
and rights of way negotiated. The first statute to protect
the right of passage was in 1555. Later legislation
shows a greater understanding of the value of roads
that reached fruition with the passing of turnpike acts.
Military roads were opened up in the Highlands between
1720 and 1730 and more recently parliament had funded
the building of roads and bridges in the Highlands.
The first turnpike act for Scotland dates from 1750
and was for Haddington to Dunglas Bridge. In 1762, parliament
gave £4000 towards the bridge at Coldstream and
a little later contributed to the Ballantrae to Stranraer
road to afford easier access to Ireland.
Page 61 Discussion of maps surveyed in the 1700s
depicting the military roads in the Highlands and the
general need for accurate maps. In the following pages
he gives considerable details of the Military Survey
and the work of later map makers, including Arrowsmith.
Page 83,84 Roman roads
Page 86 Road at British camp of Carby in Liddesdale.
Page 90 Course of Watling Street through Roxburghshire
and Lauderdale. Mention of the Girthgate.
Page 92 Details of the Maidenway that leads from Westmoreland
into Liddesdale at Deadwater where it becomes known
as the Wheel Causeway.
Page 139 Requirements on tenants of Kelso Abbey to
find waggons for the journey to Lesmahagow and to transport
goods to Berwick.
Page 145 Overview of roads and bridges in the county
- after the Union of the Parliaments, all former acts
were confirmed in one General Road Act
- first turnpike act for the county was in 1764. Within
30 years, 153 miles of turnpike had been built. Twenty
four bridges have been built at a cost of £47,000
-mention of bridges, including Roxburgh and Bridgend
Page 178 Mention of Wheel Causeway
Page 192 Etymology of Yetholm
Page 207 Malcolms Rode (mention in charters) equivalent
to the Roman road running through Lauderdale between
Earlston and Kedslie.
Page 211 The Caims (glacial deposits) had been examined
to see if they could furnish gravel for the making of
turnpike roads. It was noted that they were not artificial.
Page 312 Overview of the roads and bridges in the county
-the first roads to be turnpiked were the Edinburgh
to London road by Greenlaw and Cornhill (1759) and that
by the Press to Berwick (1787). There are 647 miles
-Coldstream bridge opened in 1766, Pees Bridge in 1789
-there were turnpike riots in July 1792.
Page 318 Requirement on tenants of the abbeys for carriage
service to Berwick
Haddingtonshire (East Lothian)
Page 493 Mention of kings highways in mediaeval
chartularies leading from various places in East Lothian
Page 494 Some notes on turnpikes. Mention of Margarets
journey in 1503 to marry James IV where it was necessary
in some places to make by force wayes for her
Page 508 Mention of Girthgate and Malcolms
Page 516 Age of place name Athelstaneford.
Edinburghshire (Mid Lothian)
Page 684 Order made in 1612 to pave several roads in
Edinburgh. The road to Leith was paved about this time.
Page 728 Mention of roads in mediaeval charters, viz.
kings highways from Ford to Newbattle Abbey, Newbattle
to Edinburgh; also Dere Street near Colden, close to
First road statutes in time of David II.
First turnpike act for Edinburghshire in 1751.
Rights of way negotiated by Newbattle Abbey to the Monklands.
Mention of a road between Edinburgh and Leith in 1214.
In 1688, footways in Edinburgh not paved.
Various acts of the 1500s and 1600s for
the repair of bridges at Cramond, Dalkeith and Musselburgh.
Page 729 Use of waggons in the midle ages. Early attempts
to introduce coaches, e.g. Edinburgh to Leith proposed
Page 785 Mention in 1214 of the High Street between
Edinburgh and Leith, probably Leith Walk.
Linlithgowshire (West Lothian)
Page 841 Roman road leading west from Cramond by Carriden,
Barnbougle Hill and Eklin Moor to the Antonine Wall.
Page 865 Newbattle Abbey negotiated rights of way through
land at Strathbrock, Torphichen, Bathgate and Ogilface
to the Monklands.
First county turnpike act in 1752.
Page 911 Roman remains in Peeblesshire - possible road
Page 939 Three or four paths in Meggat, heading for
Rights of way granted to Melrose Abbey at Mossfennock
Page 940 Note on Cauldstane Slap, used by drovers.
Notes on bridges.
Page 972 Roman camp at Africa in Roberton parish - no
road discovered here.
Page 992 Overview of roads and bridges in the county
-first turnpike act in 1764: 12 miles of road from Hawick
to Selkirk and Crosslee, with a branch to Galashiels
-charter referring to the bridge at Selkirk to be maintained
by Kelso Abbey
Page 8 General remarks on roads in Scotland
He refers to the 1821 Report of the Commission for Highland
Roads which states that 1200 miles of roads and 1200
bridges had been made at an expenditure of £450,000.
The Glasgow road had cost £50,000.
Page 22 The Commission made 58 road surveys which provided
information on 1512 miles of road unknown before.
Page 125 Duke of Queensberry paid for a road between
Thornhill and Ayrshire at his own expense.
Page 126 Duke of Buccleuch paid for most of the road
from England to Selkirk through Eskdale.
Page 128 Kings highway from Holywood to Glencairn.
Grant to Melrose to pass through lands of Dalswinton
and Duncol to their granges in Nithsdale with their
cattle and carriages - the way could be repaired per
fossas et calceas indicating that calcea means
a road made or repaired with stones or rubbish.
First turnpike act for the county was in 1777. He gives
details of the bridge at Dumfries, paid for by Devorgilla,
mother of John Baliol.
Funds raised in 1661 for a new bridge at Sanquhar.
Page 135 A road some 200 - 300 yards long led from
Dumfries castle down to the Nith.
Page 150 Mention of kings highway from Holywood
Page 213 A dam was found in Carlinwark Loch, near Castle
Douglas - this is now incorporated in the military road.
There is a road leading to an island in the loch - the
island may have been used as a barracks for English
cavalry in the Wars of Independdence.
Page 217 Causeway leading to an island on Loch Urr,
where a castle had been built.
Page 236 A Roman road branched off the main Nithsdale
road. It passed the Doon of Tynron, crossed Shinnel
Water near Stenhouse then up by Terram to Drumloff in
Glencairn. It then went by Conrig, Altrie, Holm to Polwhat
Ridge to Dalmellington and the Clyde coast. He corrects
an earlier statement that it traversed the valley of
the Scaur (Vol. I, 137-8)
Page 302 Vestiges of an ancient road in Kells parish.
Mention of the military road to Portpatrick, made about
In 1780 an act for the conversion of statute labour
into a monetary payment was made. The act was extended
in 1797 to double the rate of assessment and allow tolls
to be levied.
A new and shorter line of road (turnpike) between Dumfries
and Newton Stewart was opened in1807.
Mention of early bridges - Dumfries, Polharrow, Gatehouse-of-Fleet
(1661 - tolls levied), a bridge between Clatteringshaws
and Craigneil built in 1708-9. It was very narrow and
was replaced by another bridge nearby in 1791.
Many modern bridges, e.g. at Tongland over the Dee.
Page 402 Earl of Stair made roads in Inch parish as
part of general improvements.
Page 448 Roman road in Ayrshire - a Roman road branched
off the main Nithsdale road and ran to the top of Glencairn,
then past Holm to the ridge of Polwhat and Dalmellington
and eventually Ayr. Near Ayr the road is called variously
the Foul Causeway, The Picts Road and The Roman Way.
Page 534 Possibility that a Roman road ran through
Page 731 Derivation of the name Crawford, possibly road
or passage of blood (see OSA)
Page 769 Mention that the Romans had a ford upriver
from Dumbarton, and a fort at Paisley.
Page 799 Turnpike act in 1753 and an act for building
The roads made were from Glasgow to Floak on the Kilmarnock
road, Glasgow to Greenock, and Three-Mile House to Clerks
Bridge near Beith. The lines of these roads were poorly
In 1792, acts were passed for the conversion of statute
labour and for other roads. In the following three years
some £30,000 was spent on repairing and building
roads, and on bridges.
Greenock magistrates have made several roads, including
one to Kelly Bridge on the border with Ayrshire. There
are also pathways for travellers on foot on the Paisley
to Greenock road.
Page 854 Cathcart used to have 36 houses but now only
6 or 8 families live there due to the main road having
taken a different course.
Page 862 In West Kilpatrick a sculptured memorial stone,
eleven feet long, was used as a bridge over a local
stream (see also OSA).
Page 895 Military roads from Stirling to Dunbarton,
the bridge of Fruin up the west side of Loch Lomond,
and from Duchlage on the west aside of Loch Lomond over
to the Firth of Clyde. Originally maintained by the
government, most of the support was withdrawn and the
roads turnpiked. The road from Luss northwards continued
to be supported by the government until acts of 1814
and 1819 made highland and military roads the responsibility
of counties and government.
Page 11 General remarks on roads
A road was made in Arran from a slate quarry on Benleven
to the harbour at Lochranza.
Page 71 The first turnpike act for Stirlingshire was
in the late 1700s.
Page 105 General remark about roads and bridges being
The Perth - Queensferry and Stirling - Kinross roads
Page 160 The military roads made in the northern part
of the county under Wade made people appreciate their
benefits. An act of parliament allowed over £600
to be raised. Bridges were erected over the Awe and
Urchay. The earliest roads did not take wheeled carriages
much into account as there were so few of them.
Page 174 The benefit of roads first became apparent
with the building of the military roads.
The military roads were: Stirling to Fort William by
Callendar and Tyndrum
Stirling to Inverness and Fort George
Fort George to Fort William
Dalwhinnie on the Inverness road over to Fort Augustus.
Page 209 After embanking at the confluence of the Earn
and Tay, an island of 21 acres formed. The farmer built
a road two chains in length to join the island to the
land, It is expected that the accumulation of silt will
lead eventually to the island being joined to the land.
Page 216 Account of the Bridge of Don built about 1320
by Bishop Cheyne. Also the bridge over the Dee about
Page 268 The post road between the Spey and Findhorn
is often covered in water due to lack of attention.
Roads to Lossiemouth are also very bad.
Details of bridges in Strathspey.