of King Edward the First throughout his reign, Henry
Gough, Volume II
record of Edward's movements during his expeditions
in Scotland that contains many clues to the network
of roads in Scotland at that time. See page 82 and following
for itinerary and pages 277-288 for maps of each expedition
with explanatory text.
contemporary account of the Earl of Hertford's second
expedition to Scotland, and of the Ravages committed
by the English Forces in September 1545, David Laing,
PSAS, Vol 1, (1851-54) pps 271-81
campaign had been ordered by Henry VIII who wanted to
unite the two kingdoms by forcing the Scots to accept
the marriage of his son Edward to the infant Princess
Mary. Leaving aside the destruction caused by the campaign,
the account is useful for its itinerary from which some
idea of routes in the Borders can be obtained.
on the Antiquity of the Wheel Causeway, Haverfield,
F, PSAS, Vol. 34 (1899-1900), 129-30
short paper that lists references to the Wheel Causeway
showing that it was in use in the Middle Ages.
Ancient Bridges in Scotland, and their relation to the
Roman and Mediaeval bridges in Europe, Harry R G Inglis,
PSAS, Vol 46 (1911-12), pp 151-177
author identifies nine periods of bridge construction:
Roman; pre and post Reformation; "Collection"
bridges; local, shire and military; and three consecutive
phases of turnpike bridges. He notes that after the
time of the Romans nothing seems to have been built
until the early Middle Ages. The earliest bridges in
Scotland were of wood, and were constructed from the
13th century onwards. Stone bridges began to appear
around 1500, as was the case elsewhere in Europe.
Ferries, Floats and Bridges near Lanark, Thomas Reid,
PSAS, Vol 47, (1912-13), pps 209-256
author details all the crossings on the River Cyde from
near Abington to Crossford, below Lanark, as well as
on the Mouse which runs into the Clyde at Lanark. As
well as giving the history of the crossings, he details
the associated routes, some of considerable antiquity.
Roads and Bridges in the Early History of Scotland,
Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol 47, (1912-13), pp303-33
is a very useful account of roads and bridges up to
the 16th century. Topics covered are references in early
literature; references in contemporary documents including
early mentions of placenames like Bridgend; the comparative
chronology of bridges focussing on structural details
as indicators of age; the history of the main Pre-Reformation
bridges; and roads and bridges in the Pre-Reformation
Most Ancient Bridges in Britain, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS,
Vol.49, (1914-15), pps 256-74
is similar to the above paper but covers England and
Ireland as well as Scotland.
Roads that led to Edinburgh etc, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS,
Vol. 50, (1915-16), pps 18-49
author examines the map and charter evidence for some
early roads to Edinburgh, viz. Dere Street, Berwick,
Roxburgh and Kelso, Jedburgh, Hawick and Selkirk, Peebles,
Biggar, Lanark, Hamilton and Glasgow. He provides many
interesting insights, not least that Dere Street (and
other Roman roads) may be native routes adopted by the
Border Highways: The Minchmoor (Catrail) Road, the Wheel
Causeway, the Annandale Forest Road, the Well Path,
and the Enterkin, Harry R G Inglis, PSAS, Vol. 58 (1923-24),
author provides detailed information on each of these
roads, much of it obtained by examining them on the
ground. This helped to clarify their original purpose
and correct misleading or erroneous conclusions based
on the examination of (sometimes) incorrect maps. Particular
points of interest are that the Minchmoor road was on
the only east-west route and showed very early defensive
works so was at least a potential invasion route in
the Dark Ages. In the Middle Ages it may have been part
of the route between Kelso Abbey and its Priory at Lesmahagow.
He examines the Wheel Causeway and concludes that it
was wrongly shown on the OS maps and identifies the
correct route which was probably that between Carlisle
and Berwick. He analyses the complicated network of
routes north of Moffat and argues that the main Roman
route to the Clyde was not by the road running to Crawford
but rather by a more direct line to the Tweed and Broughton.
Details are given of the Well Path which is part of
the very old route between Edinburgh and Whithorn. He
argues that the Enterkin route (Leadhills towards Thornhill),
although important at a later date, may have originated
in the need to transport lead to Dumfries.
to Abbey: an Ancient Fife Route, R Fyfe Smith and Rev.
Norman M Johnston. PSAS, Vol 83 (1948-49), pps 162-167
abbey in question is Balmerino, situated on the south
side of the Tay opposite Dundee. In its charter mention
is made of a right of way granted in the early 1200's
to allow the monks to transport building stones from
a quarry at Strathkinness, 3 miles west of St Andrews.
The authors trace the likely course of the route, which
was 8 miles in length, and identify segments that still
Old Road in the Lammermuirs, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol
83, (1948-49), pps 198-206
account of a route running across the Lammermuirs from
Long Yester (2 miles south of Gifford) to the valley
of the Leader Water just abovbe Lauder. It may have
been part of a longer route between Haddington and Lauder
and probably originated in mediaeval times.
Old Roads in the Lammermuirs, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol.
93 (1959-60), pps 217-35
follows on from his paper listed above and examines
a network of old routes across the Lammermuirs. The
routes are Haddington to Duns, by Longformacus; Haddington
to the Whiteadder Water; Dunbar to the Dye Water (west
of Longformacus) and beyond; the Herring Road from Dumbar
to Lauder; Whiteadder Water to the Dye Water; and the
Military Survey's "Muir Road from Lauder to Dunbar".
The routes were used for droving to England as well
as for taking animals and farm produce to local markets.
One or two of the routes may be mediaeval in origin.
on a Great Post Road, Angus Graham, PSAS, Vol. 96 (1962-63),
paper examines the route/s taken by the road between
Berwick and Edinburgh since early mediaeval times. Although
it is very close to the line of the A1 (before recent
improvements) from Edinburgh to Cockburnspath, the route
south of here was by the A1107 as far as Huxton and
then by minor roads through Ayton to rejoin the A1 just
north of Berwick. The difficulties encountered by travellers
at Ayton and Cockburnspath are detailed, as are changes
made in the turnpike era. Interesting details of old
bridges on the route are provided, as well as details
Scottish Itinerary of Mary Queen of Scots, 1542-8 and
1561-8, Edward M Furgol, PSAS, Vol.117, (1987), pps
detailed discussion of the journeys undertaken by Mary
Queen of Scots throughout Scotland. The microfiche provides
Chapman Billies Tak Their Stand": a pilot study
of Scottish chapmen, packsmen and peddlars, Roger Leitch,
PSAS, Vol 120 (1990), pp 173-188
is a comprehensive account of chapmen, itinerant vendors
who travelled the countryside with goods that were often
difficult to obtain otherwise. The paper contains interesting
details of the routes they followed and the dangers
they faced on their journeys.
following author has numerous papers in the PSAS on
castles in Scotland, mostly in the north-east. The papers
selected below contain some reference to the siting
of a castle in relation to early routes. The most comprehensive
treatment of routes is in
Early Castles of Mar", Vol 63, "Corgarff
Castle", Vol 61 and "Edzell
Castle", Vol 65.
W Douglas Note on Recent Excavations at Kildrummy Castle.Vol
54 (1919-1920) 134-45
W Douglas The Architectural History of Huntly Castle.
Vol 56 (1921-22) 134-63
W Douglas The Royal Castle of Kindrochit in Mar.Vol
57 (1922-23), 75-97
W Douglas The Development of Balvenie Castle. PSAS Vol
60 (1925-26), 132-48
W Douglas Corgarff Castle, Aberdeenshire. PSAS Vol 61
W Douglas The Early Castles of Mar. (First Paper.) PSAS,
Vol 63 (1928-29), 102-38
W Douglas Edzell Castle. PSAS, Vol 65 (1930-31),115-7
W Douglas Invermark Castle. PSAS, Vol 68 (1933-34),
W Douglas The Barony, Castle, and Church of Rothiemay.PSAS
Vol 69 (1934-35), 223-46
W Douglas Fyvie Castle PSAS Vol 73 (1938-39), 32-47
W Douglas Cairnbulg Castle, Aberdeenshire PSAS Vol 83
W Douglas Glenbervie and its castle PSAS Vol 105 (1972-74),
of the Solway Until A.D. 1307, George Neilson, 1899
is a detailed history of the Solway and surrounding
country from Roman times to the death of Edward I on
his last incursion into Scotland. It contains much interesting
information about the fording points as well as references
that will be found useful in reconstructing early routes.
Some images of early maps are included.
Causey Mounth: A mediaeval route between Stonehaven
Roads of Mediaeval Lauderdale, R.P.Hardie, Oliver &
Boyd, Edinburgh, 1942
P Wilson, The Monk's Road to their Lands, AANHS Collections,
2nd Series, Vol 1, 1950
Travellers in Scotland, Hume Brown, James Thin, Edinburgh,
G. W. S., 1984, 'Land Routes: The Medieval Evidence',
in Loads and Roads in Scotland and Beyond, ed. A.Fenton
& G.Stell, 49-66, Edinburgh 1984 (John Donald), [also
in Barrow 1992, Scotland and its Neighbours in the Middle
Ages (London), 201-16, entitled ‘Land Routes’].
Ruddock, Bridges and Roads in Scotland:1400 - 1750,
in Loads and Roads in Scotland and Beyond, ed. A.Fenton
& G.Stell, Edinburgh 1984 (John Donald), 78-91
paper is best read in conjunction with Inglis' three
earlier papers (above) as it is to a large extent a
re-examination of his findings in the light of new evidence
and further inspections of the bridges. The focus is
on the physical structure of the bridges with details
given on types of foundation, on rubble arches, and
some comment on the roads.